عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The purpose of this research is to identify types of forgery and deception in manuscripts with a view to enhancing researchers’ insight and sense of recognition concerning manuscripts, helping towards the creation of an appropriate basis for textological studies.
The methodology adopted in this research is initially library- based in order to examine previous researches; then we switch to a field-work method for identifying documented examples of forgery and fraudulence.
According to the data collected, forgery and fraudulence in manuscripts can be divided into three categories: complete book- forging (ketab-sazi); forgery and fraudulence in the content of the text; and forgery and fraudulence in the physical elements of the manuscript. Methods of forgery and fraudulence in each of these categories differ depending on the kind of the manuscript (either normal non-illustrated texts or artistic ones).
Book counterfeiting is often executed by educated people, well acquainted with manuscripts, committing this unethical act for either monitory or non-monitory gains.
Our findings indicate that forgery and fraudulence in the physical elements of manuscripts is committed by different individuals, normally executed a long time after the making of the manuscript. Therefore, the frequency of this kind of forgery is more common. Forgery and fraudulence in the colophon of manuscripts, especially change of the copying date (thus, making it appear older) is more widespread.